Friday, March 6, 2009

Instructional Coordinators

Instructional coordinators, also known as curriculum specialists, staff development specialists, or directors of instructional material, play a large role in improving the quality of education in the classroom. They develop instructional materials, train teachers, and assess educational programs in terms of quality and adherence to regulations and standards.

 They also assist in implementing new technology in the classroom. Instructional coordinators often specialize in specific subjects, such as language arts, mathematics, social studies, gifted and talented, or English as a Second Language. Instructional coordinators evaluate how well a school's curriculum meets students' needs. They research teaching methods and techniques and develop procedures to determine whether program goals are being met.

 To aid in their evaluation, they may meet with members of educational committees and advisory groups to learn about subjects - English, history, or mathematics, for example - and to relate curriculum materials to these subjects, to students' needs, and to occupations for which these subjects are good preparation. They also may develop questionnaires and interview school staff about the curriculum. Based on their research and observations of instructional practice, they recommend instruction and curriculum improvements.

Another duty instructional coordinators have is to review textbooks, software, and other educational materials and make recommendations on purchases. They monitor materials ordered and the ways in which teachers use them in the classroom. They also supervise workers who catalogue, distribute, and maintain a school's educational materials and equipment.

Top Executives

All organizations have specific goals and objectives that they strive to meet. Top executives devise strategies and formulate policies to ensure that these objectives are met. Although they have a wide range of titles-such as chief executive officer, board chair, president, vice president, school superintendent, county administrator, and tax commissioner-all formulate policies and direct the operations of businesses and corporations, nonprofit institutions, governments, and other organizations.

A corporation's goals and policies are established by the chief executive officer in collaboration with other top executives, who are overseen by a board of directors. In a large corporation, the chief executive officer meets frequently with subordinate executives to ensure that operations are implemented in accordance with these policies.

The chief executive officer of a corporation retains overall accountability; however, a chief operating officer may be delegated several responsibilities, including the authority to oversee executives who direct the activities of various departments and implement the organization's policies on a day-to-day basis. In publicly held and nonprofit corporations, the board of directors is ultimately accountable for the success or failure of the enterprise, and the chief executive officer reports to the board.

The nature of other high-level executives' responsibilities depends upon the size of the organization. In large organizations, their duties are highly specialized. Managers of cost and profit centers, for instance, are responsible for the overall performance of one aspect of the organization, such as manufacturing, marketing, sales, purchasing, finance, personnel, training, administrative services, electronic data processing, property management, transportation, or the legal services department.


Actuaries are essential employees because they determine future risk, make price decisions, and formulate investment strategies. Some actuaries also design insurance, financial, and pension plans and ensure that these plans are maintained on a sound financial basis. Most actuaries specialize in life and health or property and casualty insurance; others work primarily in finance or employee benefits.

Regardless of specialty, actuaries assemble and analyze data to estimate probabilities of an event taking place, such as death, sickness, injury, disability, or property loss. They also address financial questions, including those involving the level of pension contributions required to produce a certain retirement income level or how a company should invest resources to maximize return on investment in light of potential risk.

Moreover, actuaries may help determine company policy and sometimes explain complex technical matters to company executives, government officials, shareholders, policyholders, or the public in general. They may testify before public agencies on proposed legislation affecting their businesses or explain changes in contract provisions to customers. They also may help companies develop plans to enter new lines of business or new geographic markets with existing lines of business by forecasting demand in competitive settings.

Most actuaries are employed in the insurance industry, in which they estimate the amount a company will pay in claims. For example, property/casualty actuaries calculate the expected amount of claims resulting from automobile accidents, which varies depending on the insured person's age, sex, driving history, type of car, and other factors. 

Automotive Body and Related Repairers

housands of motor vehicles are damaged in traffic accidents every day. Although some of these vehicles are beyond repair, others can be made to look and drive like new. Automotive body repairers straighten bent bodies, remove dents, and replace crumpled parts that cannot be fixed. They repair all types of vehicles but work mostly on cars and small trucks, although some work on large trucks, buses, or tractor-trailers.

Automotive body repairers use special equipment to restore damaged metal frames and body sections. Repairers chain or clamp frames and sections to alignment machines that use hydraulic pressure to align damaged components. "Unibody" vehicles, designs built without frames, must be restored to precise factory specifications for the vehicle to operate correctly.

Body repairers remove badly damaged sections of body panels with a pneumatic metal-cutting gun or by other means, and weld in replacement sections. Repairers pull out less serious dents with a hydraulic jack or hand prying bar or knock them out with handtools or pneumatic hammers. They smooth out small dents and creases in the metal by holding a small anvil against one side of the damaged area, while hammering the opposite side.

Body repairers also repair or replace the plastic body parts increasingly used on new model vehicles. They remove damaged panels and identify the family and properties of the plastic used on the vehicle. With most types of plastic, repairers can apply heat from a hot-air welding gun or by immersion in hot water and press the softened panel back into its original shape by hand. 

Loan Officers

For many individuals, taking out a loan may be the only way to afford a house, car, or college education. Likewise for businesses, loans are essential to start many companies, purchase inventory, or invest in capital equipment. Loan officers facilitate this lending by seeking potential clients and assisting them in applying for loans. Loan officers also gather information about clients and businesses to ensure that an informed decision is made regarding the quality of the loan and the probability of repayment.

Loan officers usually specialize in commercial, consumer, or mortgage loans. Commercial or business loans help companies pay for new equipment or expand operations; consumer loans include home equity, automobile, and personal loans; mortgage loans are made to purchase real estate or to refinance an existing mortgage.

In many instances, loan officers act as salespeople. Commercial loan officers, for example, contact firms to determine their needs for loans. If a firm is seeking new funds, the loan officer will try to persuade the company to obtain the loan from their institution. Similarly, mortgage loan officers develop relationships with commercial and residential real estate agencies so that, when an individual or firm buys a property, the real estate agent might recommend contacting a specific loan officer for financing.

Once this initial contact has been made, loan officers guide clients through the process of applying for a loan. This process begins with a formal meeting or telephone call with a prospective client, during which the loan officer obtains basic information about the purpose of the loan and explains the different types of loans and credit terms that are available to the applicant. Loan officers answer questions about the process and sometimes assist clients in filling out the application.

Cost Estimators

Accurately forecasting the cost of future projects is vital to the survival of any business. Cost estimators develop the cost information that business owners or managers need to make a bid for a contract or to determine if a proposed new product will be profitable. They also determine which endeavors are making a profit.

Regardless of the industry in which they work, estimators compile and analyze data on all the factors that can influence costs - such as materials, labor, location, and special machinery requirements, including computer hardware and software. Job duties vary widely depending on the type and size of the project. The methods of and motivations for estimating costs can vary greatly, depending on the industry.

On a construction project, for example, the estimating process begins with the decision to submit a bid. After reviewing various preliminary drawings and specifications, the estimator visits the site of the proposed project. The estimator needs to gather information on access to the site and availability of electricity, water, and other services, as well as on surface topography and drainage. The information developed during the site visit usually is recorded in a signed report that is included in the final project estimate.

After the site visit is completed, the estimator determines the quantity of materials and labor the firm will need to furnish. This process, called the quantity survey or "takeoff," involves completing standard estimating forms, filling in dimensions, number of units, and other information. A cost estimator working for a general contractor, for example, will estimate the costs of all items the contractor must provide. Although subcontractors will estimate their costs as part of their own bidding process, the general contractor's cost estimator often analyzes bids made by subcontractors as well.


Athletes and sports competitors compete in organized, officiated sports events to entertain spectators. When playing a game, athletes are required to understand the strategies of their game while obeying the rules and regulations of the sport. These events include both team sports - such as baseball, basketball, football, hockey, and soccer - and individual sports - such as golf, tennis, and bowling.

As the type of sport varies, so does the level of play, ranging from unpaid high school athletics to professional sports in which the best from around the world compete before national television audiences. In addition to competing in athletic events, athletes spend many hours practicing skills and teamwork under the guidance of a coach or sports instructor.

Most athletes spend hours in hard practices every day. They also spend additional hours viewing films, critiquing their own performances and techniques and scouting their opponents tendencies and weaknesses. Some athletes may also be advised by strength trainers in an effort to gain muscle and stamina, while also preventing injury. Competition at all levels is extremely intense and job security is always precarious.

As a result, many athletes train year round to maintain excellent form, technique, and peak physical condition; very little downtime from the sport exists at the professional level. Athletes also must conform to regimented diets during the height of their sports season to supplement any physical training program. Many athletes push their bodies to the limit, so career-ending injury is always a risk. Even minor injuries to an athlete may be sufficient opportunity for another athlete to play, excel, and become a permanent replacement.


Coaches organize, instruct, and teach amateur and professional athletes in fundamentals of individual and team sports. In individual sports, instructors may often fill this role. Coaches train athletes for competition by holding practice sessions to perform drills and improve the athlete's skills and conditioning. Using their expertise in the sport, coaches instruct the athlete on proper form and technique in beginning and later in advanced exercises attempting to maximize the players potential.

Along with overseeing athletes as they refine their individual skills, coaches also are responsible for managing the team during both practice sessions and competitions. They may also select, store, issue, and inventory equipment, materials, and supplies. During competitions, for example, coaches substitutes players for optimum team chemistry and success.

In addition, coaches direct team strategy and may call specific plays during competition to surprise or overpower the opponent. To choose the best plays, coaches evaluate or "scout" the opposing team prior to the competition, allowing them to determine game strategies and practice specific plays. As coaches, advocating good sportsmanship, promoting a competitive spirit, tutoring fairness, and teaching teamwork are all important responsibilities.

Many coaches in high schools are primarily teachers of academic subjects and supplement their income by coaching part-time. College coaches consider it a full-time discipline and may be away from home frequently as they travel to scout and recruit prospective players. Coaches sacrifice many hours of their free time throughout their careers, particularly full-time coaches at the professional level, whose seasons are much longer than those at the amateur level.

Sports instructors 

They teach professional and nonprofessional athletes on an individual basis. They organize, instruct, train, and lead athletes of indoor and outdoor sports such as bowling, tennis, golf, and swimming. Because activities are as diverse as weight lifting, gymnastics, scuba diving, and may include self-defense training such as karate, instructors tend to specialize in one or a few types of activities.

Like a coach, sports instructors may also hold daily practice sessions and be responsible for any needed equipment and supplies. Using their knowledge of their sport, physiology, and corrective techniques, they determine the type and level of difficulty of exercises, prescribe specific drills, and relentlessly correct individuals' techniques. Some instructors also teach and demonstrate use of training apparatus, such as trampolines or weights, while correcting athlete's weaknesses and enhancing their conditioning.

Using their expertise in the sport, sports instructors evaluate the athlete and their opponents to devise a competitive game strategy. Coaches and sports instructors sometimes differ in their approach to athletes because of the focus of their work. For example, while coaches manage the team during a game to optimize its chance for victory, sports instructors - such as those who work for professional tennis players - often are not permitted to instruct their athletes during competition.

Sports instructors spend more of their time with athletes working one-on-one, allowing them to design customized training programs for each individual they train. Motivating athletes to play hard challenges most coaches and sports instructors but is vital for success. Many derive great satisfaction working with children or young adults, helping them to learn new physical and social skills, improving their physical condition, while also achieving success

Umpires, referees

Umpires, referees, and other sports officials officiate competitive athletic and sporting events. They observe the play and detect infractions of rules and impose penalties established by the sports' regulations. Umpires, referees, and sports officials anticipate play and position themselves to best see the action, assess the situation, and determine any violations. 

Some sports officials, such as boxing referees, may work independently, while others such as umpires - the sports officials of baseball - work in groups. Regardless of the sport, the job is highly stressful because officials are often required to assess the play and make a decision in a matter of a split second and some competitors, coaches, and spectators are likely to disagree strenuously.

Professional scouts evaluate the skills of both amateur and professional athletes to determine talent and potential. As a sports intelligence agent, the scout's primary duty is to seek out top athletic candidates for the team they represent, ultimately contributing to team success. At the professional level, scouts typically work for scouting organizations, or more often as freelance scouts. In locating new talent, scouts perform their work in secrecy so as to not tip off players that interest them to their opponents. 

At the college level, the head scout is often an assistant coach, although freelance scouts may aid colleges by providing reports about exceptional players to coaches. Scouts at this level seek talented high school athletes by reading newspapers, contacting high school coaches and alumni, attending high school games, and studying videotapes of prospects' performances.


Dietitians and nutritionists plan food and nutrition programs, and supervise the preparation and serving of meals. They help prevent and treat illnesses by promoting healthy eating habits and suggesting diet modifications, such as less salt for those with high blood pressure or reduced fat and sugar intake for those who are overweight.

Dietitians run food service systems for institutions such as hospitals and schools, promote sound eating habits through education, and conduct research. Major areas of practice include clinical, community, management, and consultant dietetics.

Clinical dietitians provide nutritional services for patients in institutions such as hospitals and nursing homes. They assess patients' nutritional needs, develop and implement nutrition programs, and evaluate and report the results. They also confer with doctors and other healthcare professionals in order to coordinate medical and nutritional needs. Some clinical dietitians specialize in the management of overweight patients, care of the critically ill, or of renal (kidney) and diabetic patients. In addition, clinical dietitians in nursing homes, small hospitals, or correctional facilities also may manage the food service department.

Community dietitians counsel individuals and groups on nutritional practices designed to prevent disease and promote good health. Working in places such as public health clinics, home health agencies, and health maintenance organizations, they evaluate individual needs, develop nutritional care plans, and instruct individuals and their families. dietitians working in home health agencies provide instruction on grocery shopping and food preparation to the elderly, individuals with special needs, and children.


“Marketing is a four step process that begins with analyzing and defining a qualified universe of potential users or buyers.After this first phase in the marketing process, a true marketing effort succeeds in capturing the attention of the intended buyers within the targeted universe. Third, systematic effort must be put into getting the prospects to accept the concepts or propositions offered via the marketing effort.

Finally, with all three of the previous steps achieved, the marketer must convert the prospective buyer into an actual buyer by getting them to take the desired action (purchase, rent, call, download, subscribe, refer, sell, follow the law, become a member, etc.).” But if we step back even further, I can offer you another marketing definition I’ve created, perhaps simpler and universal in its relevancy:

“Marketing is the ongoing process of moving people closer to making a decision to purchase, use, follow, refer, upload, download, obey, reject, conform, become complacent to someone else’s products, services or values. Simply, if it doesn’t facilitate a ‘sale’ then it’s not marketing.” With this definition in mind, you can appreciate the universal power of marketing. Marketing never ceases.

Every decision we make spawns from the left or right brain making the more compelling marketing proposition. What feels good versus what is practical. What you want versus what you need. The desire to live in the moment versus the desire to plan ahead. The desire to make passionate love to the stranger standing next to you versus the desire to be faithful to your partner. Marketing can be a catalyst for change. And is an equally powerful way to preserve the status quo. Often, he who markets best gets the change he advocates.

Career in fashion designing

Career in fashion designing is one of the most glamorous professions today. Fashion designing as a career involves creative design and drawing, pattern making, sewing and embroidery, garment-manufacturing technology, apparel construction, fabric dyeing and printing and computer-aided design.

Fashion designing in India is a very challenging and demanding career. A career in fashion designing involves meeting with rich and famous people. The India?s Fashion designing industry grows at the rate of 25 per cent per annum and promises many employment openings. According to a recent study conducted by the Fashion design council of India (FDCI), designer wear in India has been identified as a key growth sector.

To have a career in fashion designing two types of qualifications are required i.e. natural and acquired. Natural skills would be good taste, color-coding sense, artistic talent and sense of current trends and fashion etc. The acquired skills would be a degree in Bachelor of Arts or science at an accredited college or university.

A graduation diploma from a school or college in fashion designing is also required. Many institutes offer a diploma course in fashion designing after 10+2.There are many courses in fashion designing after completing graduation in any stream. In some of the elite institutes, admission is only on merit i.e. through written test, aptitude test, groupdiscussion, presentation and interview. The duration of the fashion-designing course may vary from 1 year to 3 years.


The Indian banking industry is currently termed as strong, having weathered the global economic slowdown and showing good numbers with strong support flowing in from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) measures. Furthermore, a report "Opportunities in Indian Banking Sector", by market research company, RNCOS, forecasts that the Indian banking sector will grow at a healthy compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of around 23.3 per cent till 2011.

Banking, financial services and insurance (BFSI), together account for 38 per cent of India's outsourcing industry (worth US$ 47.8 billion in 2007). According to a report by McKinsey and NASSCOM, India has the potential to process 30 per cent of the banking transactions in the US by the year 2010. Outsourcing by the BFSI to India is expected to grow at an annual rate of 30–35 per cent.

According to a study by Dun & Bradstreet (an international research body)—"India's Top Banks 2008"—there has been a significant growth in the banking infrastructure. Taking into account all banks in India, there are overall 56,640 branches or offices, 893,356 employees and 27,088 ATMs. Public sector banks made up a large chunk of the infrastructure, with 87.7 per cent of all offices, 82 per cent of staff and 60.3 per cent of all ATMs.

According to the RBI, Indian financial markets have generally remained orderly during 2008-09. In view of the tight liquidity conditions in the domestic money markets in September 2008, the Reserve Bank announced a series of measures beginning September 16, 2008. Thus, the average call rate which was at 10.52 per cent declined to 7.57 per cent in November 2008 under the impact of these measures.


MarketingProfs is the only professional site and community I have found that truly delivers on their promise to provide timely, pertinent and relevant information to address today's marketing challenges. When most people think of marketing, they think of marketing tactics. People associate marketing with tactics, partly because they're fun.

 Advertising is fun, promotions are fun, and so is sending out email campaigns and every other similar tactic. But tactics, while the most salient aspects of marketing, are similar to the tactics of sport. They're very important, but useless without having a sound basis of knowledge. And so it is with marketing. Marketing is far more than tactics. Marketing is analysis, and a sound marketing strategy is based on this analysis.

What type of analysis are we talking about? Well, analysis about customers, for example. Having a solid understanding of customers means having a solid understanding about how customers behave, their motivations, their perceptions and preferences. It means segmenting the market correctly and not in the way that most companies think about segmentation (if they ever do). It means having a profound understanding of their attitudes, their knowledge and their emotions.

Without having this knowledge, the tactics of marketing are just blowing in the wind. You'll hope that the tactics work, but be blissfully unaware about whether anyone would want to pay attention or listen. Marketing is also about understanding competition. But not just listing off who the competitors are. It means thinking about their competitive reactions, their objectives and capabilities. It means understanding competitive forces in an industry as well.


Maintains records of routine accounting transactions. Assists in preparation of financial and operating reports including trial balances, adjustments and closing entries. May assist in analysis and interpretation of accounting records for use by management. Requires bachelors degree in accounting or business or equivalent experience

Prepares and maintains accounting records which may include general accounting, costing, or budget data. Examines, analyzes and interprets accounting records for the purpose of giving advice or preparing statements. May act as lead to lower level employees. Requires bachelors degree in accounting or business and 2-4 years relevant accounting experience. 

Accountant Senior, Establishes, interprets and analyzes complex accounting records of financial statements. These may include general accounting, costing or budget data. Examines, analyzes and interprets accounting records for management. Requires bachelors degree in accounting or business or equivalent experience and 5 or more years experience. 

They completes basic bookkeeping and accounting tasks. Performs posting of cash receipts, expenses, or other transactions to journals or ledgers and verifies accuracy. Reviews invoices, bills, vouchers, or other documents for corrections before entering into records. Sorts and files documents, and performs calculations. Usually requires a minimum of six months relevant

Investment Banking

Investment banking is a field of banking that aids companies in acquiring funds. In addition to the acquisition of new funds, investment banking also offers advice for a wide range of transactions a company might engage in. Traditionally, banks either engaged in commercial banking or investment banking. In commercial banking, the institution collects deposits from clients and gives direct loans to businesses and individuals.

Through investment banking, an institution generates funds in two different ways. They may draw on public funds through the capital market by selling stock in their company, and they may also seek out venture capital or private equity in exchange for a stake in their company. An investment banking firm also does a large amount of consulting. Investment bankers give companies advice on mergers and acquisitions, for example.

They also track the market in order to give advice on when to make public offerings and how best to manage the business' public assets. Some of the consultative activities investment banking firms engage in overlap with those of a private brokerage, as they will often give buy-and-sell advice to the companies they represent.

The line between investment banking and other forms of banking has blurred in recent years, as deregulation allows banking institutions to take on more and more sectors. With the advent of mega-banks which operate at a number of levels, many of the services often associated with investment banking are being made available to clients who would otherwise be too small to make their business profitable.

Electrician Jobs

They install and maintain the wiring, fuses, and other elements thru which electricity flows. Plans are technical diagrams that show the locations of circuits, outlets, load centers, panel boards, and other hardware. To guarantee public safety, electricians follow the nation's Electric Code, and State and local building codes.Electricians connect every kind of wires to circuit breakers, transformers, outlets, or other parts. They join the wires in boxes with diverse specifically designed connectors. 

Later, they use ammeters, ohmmeters, voltmeters, oscilloscopes, and other apparatus to check connections and make sure the compatibility and safety of elements. Electricians usually target either construction or upkeep, though several do both. They also fasten tiny metal or plastic boxes to the walls that may house electric switches and outlets. They pull insulated wires or wires thru the passage to complete circuits between these boxes.

 The diameter and number of wires installed relies on how much power will need to run thru it. The larger the diameter of the wire, the more electricity it can handle. In home construction, electricians customarily install insulated wire encased in plastic, which does not have to run thru passage. Electricians also may install coaxial or fiber optic wire for telecomms equipment and electronic controls for business uses. Maintenance electricians fix or replace electrical and electronic kit when it breaks. They make required repairs as fast as feasible to minimize inconvenience.

 They may replace items like circuit breakers, fuses, switches, electric and electronic parts, or wire. Electricians also intermittently check all equipment to ensure it is operating correctly and to fix issues before breakdowns happen. Upkeep work varies greatly, depending on where an electrician works. Electricians who focus on home work perform a wide selection of electric work for house owners. Electricians in enormous factories typically do upkeep work that is more complicated.


Civil Engineering

Involves planning, designing and executing structural works. The profession deals with a wide variety of engineering tasks including designing, supervision and construction activities of public works like roads, bridges, tunnels, buildings, airports, dams, water works, sewage systems, ports etc. and offers a multitude of challenging career opportunities.

 A civil engineer is responsible for planning and designing a project, constructing the project to the required scale, and maintenance of the product. A civil engineer requires not only a high standard of engineering knowledge but also supervisory and administrative skills. The planning part of their work involves site investigation, feasibility studies, creating solutions to complications that may occur and the actual designing of structures.

They have to work with the guidelines of the local government authority and get plans approved by the relevant authority. They may prepare cost estimates and set construction schedules. Construction work involves dealing with clients, architects, government officials, contactors and the supervision of work according to standards. Their work also involves the maintenance and repair of the project. 

The major specialisations within civil engineering are structural, water resources, environmental, construction, transportation,  geo-technical engineering etc. On most projects, civil engineers work in teams or in coordination with many other engineers. They can find work as a supervisor of a construction site or a managerial position or in design, research as well as teaching in government services or private concerns. They can also work as independent consultants.


Truck Driving Jobs

The first requirement to become a truck driver is to hold a valid Commercial Driving License (CDL). It is good if you are holding a valid CDL of Class A, as most of the transportation companies will demand drivers with clean records of driving. According to the Department of Transportation, Truck Driving Jobs require you to have minimum 20/40 vision in your each eye with or without contact lenses or glasses. In addition, you need to have minimum 70-degree field of vision.


Before applying for a job of truck driver, you have to know the minimum and maximum valid age for driving truck in your state, as different states have different driving and licensing rules. Generally, individuals of 18 years and above are eligible to drive trucks in local areas, whereas individuals of 21 years and above qualify for interstate driving. In addition, to apply for Truck Driving Jobs, there may be few additional criterions demanded by companies based on laws of government.


The first step to become a truck driver is to look for a truck driving school. After completing the course of truck driving school, you will be skilled enough to be a successful truck driver. Moreover, truck-driving schools may help you to find secure truck driving jobs. In addition, successful completion of the driving course will help you fetch a high paying truck-driving job. However, this may be valid only for certified truck driving schools.


Make sure that you select truck-driving school near the area where you want to apply for Truck Driving Jobs. If the duration of course offered by truck driving school is not more than three weeks, then it is possible that the school is not offering much assistance for developing your career. Usually, learning skills of driving and hauling truck or trailer takes time. Thus, enroll in a truck driving school, which offers detailed knowledge to improve your driving skills.


If you are unable to find the right truck driving school, then you may apply for transportation companies that provide the required training. It is possible that the company you want to join will not require your CDL license to drive trucks, as the company will train you to qualify for Truck Driving Jobs. After completing your training, you may work in interstate moving of goods or moving goods within your state. If you wish to stay close to your home, then go for hauling goods within your local area.

Travel And Tourism Industry

Travel and Tourism industry in India has emerged as one of the main sectors for the significant growth of Indian economy in recent years. Travel and Tourism industry is widely recognized as the largest foreign exchange earner in the world today. Being a very vast industry, the scope of employment opportunities is unlimited. Travel and tourism industry consists of tourists, travel agents and governmentand private tourism departments.

In India travel and tourism industry is the second largest foreign exchange earner. India?s foreign exchange earnings from travel and tourism industry in 2005 were US $ 5731 million. According to a survey conducted across 134 countries by the world?s travellers, India is being rated as the fifth most preferred destination. In India travel and tourismindustry gives employment to millions of people.

Tour operator work involves organizing tours, arranging visas, taking care of board and lodging, providing guides for a journey etc. For this employment one needs to have pleasant personality and good  communication skills. Holiday consultant work involves organizing tailor made tours and providing all-important details that are needed.

There are many travel and tourism institutes, affiliated to various universities and colleges, which provide training in tourism courses at the diploma and degree level. The minimum requirement for admission to travel and tourism courses at undergraduate level is higher secondary. The postgraduate courses require graduation in any academic discipline and fluency in at least one foreign language. These tourism courses are aimed at clearing concepts of students related to ticketing, reservations, tour packages, customer service and much more. 

Occupational Therapy

A health profession that focuses on helping individuals with mental or physical illness/disabilities to achieve the highest level of functioning and wellness possible in their daily lives. In other words occupational therapy is skilled treatment that helps individuals with disabilities, achieve independence in all facets of their lives. This includes performance of all daily normal activities in work, play, leisure etc.  

Occupational therapists (OT's) work with those who have physically, mentally, developmentally, or emotionally disabling conditions. They help patients identify imbalances they may have in their lives and design activities to deal with them. This type of therapy is patient specific, involving recreational, creative or educational activities.

OT's area of work includes giving customized treatment programs for specific disabilities, evaluating home and work environments and giving recommendations for necessary adaptation, recommending adaptive equipment for permanent/temporary loss of function, such as wheel chairs, splints, aids for eating and dressing needed for the patient and training them in its use, assessing and recording the patients progress periodically and also giving guidance to family members and care givers how to care for the patient.

Occupational therapists use various methods in the treatment of their patients to assist them in maximizing their potential in the categories of occupational performance areas and occupational performance components. The term occupational performance area refers to all activities of daily living, such as grooming, dressing, food preparation and eating, communication, and mobility; work activities, including home management, care of others, educational activities, and vocational activities; and play or leisure activities.


The science of the miniature, and the technology of the future - is one of the most exciting and wide area of research which may lead to the greatest technological advances of the 21st century. It is a global phenomenon and an emerging field, that finds its way into a myriad of industrial applications spanning across all areas of science and technology.

A form of molecular engineering, it is the technology associated with the creation and scrutiny of minute objects, measuring between 1 to 100 nanometers. Nanotechnology can be defined as the application of science, engineering and technology to develop novel materials and devices in different fields in the nano-range. 

Nanotechnology is a unique and special branch of science that essentially combines physics, chemistry, biology, engineering etc. Sometimes known as molecular manufacturing, it deals with the design and manufacture of extremely small electronic circuits and mechanical devices built at the molecular level of matter. 

The application of Nanotechnology will open new avenues of research in the world of science and engineering in almost every field, from medicine to fabrics. Due to this, the relatively new field is fast emerging as the favorite of all kinds of technological arena and will be one of the most significant enabling technologies in the future.


Pharmacy is related to health sciences. It is the profession responsible for the preparation, dispensing and appropriate use of medication and which provides services to achieve optimal therapeutic outcomes. A Pharmacists job is to prepare, mix, compound or dispense drugs and medicines, ointments, powder, pills, tablets and injections on the prescription of a medical practitioner, dentist or veterinarian.

In detail, they are concerned with production of pharmaceutical products, development of the methods or processes of production and quality control. Those in research concern themselves with synthesis of new drugs (what is commonly referred to as molecules), new processes, clinical testing of the effects of such drugs on animals and humans, and obtaining the required License from the drug control authorities.

A pharmacist is  required to explain the mode and precautions regarding the use of medicines  dispensed in a hospital pharmacy, prepare special formulations normally not available in the market, assist the physician in rendering necessary information about various drugs, their contra-indications, incompatibility etc. Pharmacy is a health profession in which the pharmacist functions as the licensed expert responsible for oversight of drug utilization. 

Pharmacy is a rewarding profession in the health care system that involves working closely with doctors and patients. No matter what health field you step into, there will always be a need for pharmacists. They provide their expertise on the composition, use, and manufacturing of a drug, as well as its physiological and chemical interactions

Genetic Engineering 

Genetic engineering have specialisations related to plants, animals and human beings. Genetic engineering in plants and animals may be to improve certain natural characteristics of value, to increase resistance to disease or damage and to develop new characteristics etc. It is used to change the colour, size, texture etc of plants otherwise known as GM (Genetically Modified) foods. GE in humans can be to correct severe hereditary defects by introducing normal genes into cells in place of missing or defective ones. 

A cell is the smallest living unit, the basic structural and functional unit of all living matter, whether a plant, an animal, humans or a fungus. While some organisms are single celled, others like plants, animals, humans etc are made up of a lot more cells. For eg humans have approximately 3 million cells. A cell is composed of a 'cell membrane' enclosing the whole cell, many 'organelles' equivalent to the organs in the body and a 'nucleus' which is the command centre of the cell.

Inside the nucleus are the chromosomes which is the storage place for all genetic (hereditary) information which determines the nature and characteristics of an organism. This information is written along the thin thread, called DNA, a nucleic acid which constitutes the genes (units of heredity). The DNA governs cell growth and is responsible for the transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next. 

Genetic engineering aims to re-arrange the sequence of DNA in gene using artificial methods. The work of a genetic engineer involves extracting the DNA out of one organism, changing it using chemicals or radiation and subsequently putting it back into the same or a different organism. For eg: genes and segments of DNA from one species is taken and put into another species. They also study how traits and characteristics are transmitted through the generations, and how genetic disorders are caused. Their research involves researching the causes and discovering potential cures if any. 


It is the scientific study of gemstones. It is a branch of mineralogy that is concerned with the study of gem materials, including identification and testing methods, cutting and polishing synthetically manufactured gems, precious metals and alloys, their sources and origins and grading and appraising. Those interested in possessing gems for their value should have an idea of Gemmology to distinguish one gem from another

The first step in learning about gems is its categorization. The next step is to learn the terminology of gemstones and then their physical and optical properties, and how those properties are used to identify gems. After getting the background one  can proceed into gem identification. Studies relating to this field are gem cutting, sorting, grading, valuation and identification of gemstones, fashion, computer pattern designing, jewellery making, consultancy regarding stones, selling etc. 

While Gemmologists study the quality, characteristics and value of gem stones, Jewelers typically do the handiwork required to produce a piece of Jewellery. Gemmologists identifies the gems and advises the jeweller about the compatibility of gems to particular metals. In Jewellery, identification is one of the key element of business.

Some rubies and garnets sometimes look alike, but their values are considerably different, only a Gemmologists can easily identify the difference and know its  physical characteristic and value. At the same time traditionally preferred Gems like Rubies, Sapphires and Emeralds have maintained a consistent position.From trade point of view Gems & Jewellery has been one of the biggest foreign exchange earner for India.

Industrial engineering

It is the branch of engineering that concerns the development, improvement, implementation and evaluation of integrated systems of people, knowledge, equipment, energy, material and process. Industrial engineering draws upon the principles and methods of engineering analysis and synthesis. It eliminates waste of time, money, materials, energy and other resources.

Industrial Engineering is also known as Operations management, Production Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering or Manufacturing Systems Engineering depending on the viewpoint or motives of the user. In healthcare Industrial Engineers are more commonly known as Management Engineers or Health Systems Engineers.

Whereas most engineering disciplines apply skills to very specific areas, industrial engineering is applied in virtually every industry, like shortening queues at a theme park, streamlining an operating room, distributing products worldwide, and manufacturing cheaper and more reliable automobiles. Even though the term industrial engineering is originally applied to manufacturing, it has extended it's service to similar fields like operations research, systems engineering, ergonomics and quality engineering.

A candidate who have passed his/her 10+2 or equivalent with science as a subject is eligible for the admission to the Bachelor's Degree in Industrial Engineering. The job of an industrial engineer centers around the use of people, materials, energy, information and machines in the most effective way. hose engineers, who choose to work in the private sector, negotiate their terms and conditions with the management themselves.